News & Events

This Note aims to obtain an overview of the current trend of studies on the measurements of economic and social impacts of research and development investments. Research materials were obtained using keywords related to the research areas since the year 2000.

NISTEP has been investigating how to develop of sustainable saving electricity since 2011. In March 2011, we were concern about blackout in Tokyo area because of the two nuclear power plant utility firms in Fukushima suffered extensive damage from the March 11th disaster. The Japanese government is asking industries, local governments, embassy and also households to save power in various ways. Fortunately, because of huge those efforts by all sectors, we didn’t get any blackout without plan. However, many people especially who is working for industries against to keep continue those conditions such as working time shift, changing air conditioning operation system etc. that deeply relating life style. Also, it’s difficult to keep such patience a long time.
Based on those circumstances, we investigated the real condition about such saving electricity and we discussed the sustainable saving electricity by the expert. Furthermore, through Delphi and a Scenario investigation, we grasped what kind of things a sustainable saving electricity of technology and system, also we examined the prospects to the future about sustainable saving electricity based on those result.

We examine the effects of R&D spillovers on total factor productivity in a comprehensive panel of Japanese manufacturing plants matched with R&D survey data, 1987-2007. We simultaneously examine the role of public (university) and private R&D spillovers, while focusing on differential effects due to technological, geographic and relational (buyer-supplier and capital) proximity. We find positive effects of technologically and geographically proximate private R&D and technologically related public R&D stock. Especially, the effects of public R&D spillovers are more salient for a plant of which parent firm is more R&D intensive. We also find evidence of positive R&D spillovers from supplier’s and customers’ R&D which is enhanced by capital relationships.

Building a mechanism of science and technology innovation activities in a region is required, which is to make use of the characteristics and strengths of regions and can be deployed autonomously. Therefore, universities are expected to work with such local companies as a member of the local community, and to contribute to the construction of a regional innovation system. Then, in order to clarify the achievements and issues of the industry-academia collaboration in region, the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) conducted research on industry-academia collaboration to target the manufacturing industry in Kagoshima Prefecture as a case study in fiscal year 2011 (Sotohebo-Nakatake 2012). In 2012 we conducted a questionnaire survey by mail to target the 700 manufacturing companies to put headquarters, factories, and offices in Nagano prefecture, and the survey was obtained valid responses of 298 companies (42.6% response rate).Of the respondents of this survey, there is more than half (51.4%)companies had experience of cooperation with academia. Many companies initiated the industry-academia collaboration from 2005. There are 108 companies which had cooperation with Shinshu University. This is 36.2% of the total answer. In Shinshu University, research and development has been more active. In the evaluation of a result of industry-academia collaboration, improvement of technical level is high. The companies have accumulated experience of industry-academia collaboration, and they have improved the capabilities of research and development. At the same time, they have improved their capacity of the exploration of technology. Therefore, it might be said that local firms will not rely on only universities in the same region. It might be possible that there search ability of university and technical college can be developed, according to keep relationship with such technology intensive companies and to respond the pioneering needs of such companies.

Building a mechanism of science and technology innovation activities in a region is required, which is to make use of the characteristics and strengths of regions and can be deployed autonomously. Therefore, universities are expected to work with such local companies as a member of the local community, and to contribute to the construction of a regional innovation system. Then, in order to clarify the achievements and issues of the industry academic collaboration in region, the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy(NISTEP) conducted research on industry-academia collaboration to target the manufacturing industry in Kagoshima Prefecture as a case study in fiscal year 2011 (Sotohebo-Nakatake 2012). In 2012 we conducted a questionnaire survey by mail to target the 700 manufacturing companies to put headquarters, factories, and offices in Gunma prefecture, and the survey was obtained valid responses of 190 companies (27.1% response rate).Of the respondents of this survey, there is over one third of (34.7%) companies had experience of cooperation with academia. Many companies initiated the industry-academia collaboration from the 1990s. There are 53 companies which had cooperation with Gunma University. This is 27.9% of the total answer. In Gunma University, research and development has been more active. In the evaluation of a result of industry-academia collaboration, improvement of technical level is high. In the prefecture, there were some companies that promote research and development without industry-academia collaboration. In order to activate the industry-academia collaboration in the region, it is necessary that we can promote to these R&D-oriented companies in steadily announce on the benefits of collaboration with university and in building relationship between industry and academia.

Building a mechanism of science and technology innovation activities in a region is required, which is to make use of the characteristics and strengths of regions and can be deployed autonomously. Therefore, universities are expected to work with such local companies as a member of the local community, and to contribute to the construction of a regional innovation system. Then, in order to clarify the achievements and issues of the industry academic collaboration in region, the National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP) conducted research on industry academic collaboration to target the manufacturing industry in Kagoshima Prefecture as a case study in fiscal year 2011 (Sotohebo-Nakatake 2012). In 2012 we conducted a questionnaire survey by mail to target the 500 manufacturing companies to put headquarters, factories, and offices in Yamagata prefecture, and the survey was obtained valid responses of 211 companies (42.2% response rate).Of the respondents of this survey, there is over one third of (35.6%) companies had experience of cooperation with academia. Many companies initiated the industry academic collaboration from 2005. There are 50 companies which had cooperation with Yamagata University. This is 23.7% of the total answer. In Yamagata University, technical consultation has been more active. In the evaluation of a result of industry academic collaboration, improvement of technical level, development of new products (technology) and human resource development in the employees are high. In the industry academic collaboration in Yamagata Prefecture, technical consultation was more active than research and development. This means that universities and national technical colleges have detailed responses to the local businesses, at the same time relationships with companies and universities and national technical colleges will not have reached the stage of research and development. In order for local companies to do research and development with academia, additionally to build a relationship between universities and industry or to introduce technology seeds of universities and national technical colleges, it can be said that there is a need to grant motivation to research and development or to improve the financial strength, working together with local governments.

Following Corrado et al. (2009), we measure intangible assets at the listed firm level in Japan.
Compared to the conventional Tobin’s Q, the revised Q including intangibles is almost 1 on
average, as suggested by Hall (2000 and 2001). The standard deviation of the revised Q is smaller
than that of the conventional Q. Estimation results based on Bond and Cummins (2000) show that
greater intangible assets increase firm value. In particular, in the IT industries, Tobin’s Q is higher
than that in the non-IT industries on average and the stock market reflects intangibles in the IT
industries. These results suggest that the government should adopt policies that promote
investment including intangibles in the IT industries and industry structure in Japan.
Keywords: Tobin’s Q, Intangible asset, IT industries, price cost margin, external finance
dependence
JEL classifications: E22, G31, G32, L25, O30