Archive for 8月, 2014

Science Map is a map of science that shows mutual relation among research areas in which active research is being conducted. NISTEP periodically has been publishing a series of Science Map since 2003. The map is generated by the clustering of top 1% highly cited papers via the co-citation analysis and by the mapping of the research areas on the two-dimensional space.

This report shows results of Science Map 2010 and Science Map 2012 and discussed time series changes of Science Maps since 2002. Trends of inter-/multi- disciplinary research, international co-authorship, and share of Japan and other major countries are analyzed.

In the Science Map 2012, we proposed a new concept of Sci-GEO chart which aims to classify research areas in terms of continuity of research areas and cognitive linkage among other research areas. We applied the Sci-GEO chart to Science Maps 2002 – 2012, and found that small island type research areas, having no continuity from the previous Science Map and showing weak cognitive linkage with other research, account for about 40% of all research areas and continent type research areas, having continuity from the previous Science Map and showing strong cognitive linkage with other research, accounts for about 20% of all research areas.

This study investigates the current status and characteristics of social and regional engagement, including management aspects, relationship with government, continuing professional development and consulting services, of higher education institutions (universities and colleges) in Japan. With regards to social and regional engagement, many institutions have provided a variety of program. Especially national universities, which are often classified as comprehensive universities including sience and technology departments, have a wide range of programs in places that facilitate social and regional engagement. Many of higher education institutions have developed the organizational structure and operational management. While many national and public universities have set up incentivizing measures to encourage professors to engage with the society, many of private universities and junior colleges have yet to develop incentivizing measures. Although many national universities actively have engaged with their society, the procurement of the necessary human resource and financial capital to conduct programs is a critical challenge in the future.There were a wide variety of social and regional engagement programs run by different institutions that differ depending on institution classification, specialization, and size. Instead of standardizing these programs by applying a unified set of rules and guidelines, instituting a diverse system that reflects the unique organizational characteristics of the institution and needs of surrounding society would be more effective in developing social and regional engagement programs. By allowing institutions to devise a system that fits their schools and region, higher education institutions can facilitate more dynamic and active programs for their society and region.

“Science and Technology Indicators” is a basic resource for understanding Japanese science and technology activities based on objective, quantitative data. It classifies science and technology activities into five categories, R&D Expenditure; R&D Personnel; Higher Education; The Output of R&D; and Science, Technology, and Innovation. The multiple relevant indicators (approximately 150 indicators) show the state of Japanese science and technology activities. “Japanese Science and Technology Indicators 2014” adds a new indicator that utilizes the results of the Japanese National Innovation Survey in time-series comparison. In indicators related to human resources development, data representation has been improved to more clearly show the status of women and international students. Additionally, seven column-style articles use indicators to focus on timely issues and specific themes from today’s society.

Using “Japanese Science and Technology Indicators 2014” to look at conditions in Japan, total Japanese R&D expenditure has changed little since 2009. The percentage of researchers who are female is especially small in the business enterprise sector. The number of female students enrolling in Japanese higher education institutions is rising. Japan ranked number one in the world in share of patents (patent families) during the 2000s. Japan’s competitive superiority of its high-technology industries is falling, but the competitiveness in medium high-technology industries is maintained high level.